Chronic human disturbance in the king penguin colony of ‘La Baie du Marin’ on Possession Island (Crozet Archipelago, 46°25’ S, 51°45’E). In 1961–1962, a first camp was installed on the beach side of the colony (top picture taken in 1967). Since then, logistic facilities have remained and scientific facilities have been installed at the same place. After 1967, a road was built in order to facilitate logistic operations and transits of material (food, equipment) to the permanent station situated some 500-m above (bottom picture). Thus, part of the colony has been subjected to the regular presence of humans and their activities (scientific or other), whereas another part far from the facilities was left relatively undisturbed. This study is based on the comparison of the HR stress response of birds located within the areas of high (HD) or low (LD) human disturbances (blue-shaded areas). Photo credits: Archive biology lab, Crozet/IPEV. Claire Saraux/IPEV.