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Table 4 Geographical and chemical distances between the nine sampled (sub)populations of P. triangulum

From: The odor of origin: kinship and geographical distance are reflected in the marking pheromone of male beewolves (Philanthus triangulum F., Hymenoptera, Crabronidae)

  W WB WC V R S D I E
W - NA 4 6 18 31 274 472 746
W B NA - 4 6 18 31 274 472 746
W C NA 0.29 - 3 15 32 270 473 743
V NA 0.58 0.47 - 13 33 267 474 740
R NA 0.70 0.55 0.68 - 31 256 485 732
S 1.73 0.76 0.82 0.57 1.13 - 276 501 758
D 1.00 1.00 0.97 0.81 0.79 1.08 - 635 479
I 1.59 NA NA NA NA 0.64 1.51 - 911
E 3.48 NA NA NA NA 2.23 3.40 2.41 -
  1. Chemical distances (normalized to Würzburg – Düsseldorf) are displayed in italics in the lower left half of the table, geographical distances in the upper right half of the table. For population abbreviations see Table 1.