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Table 1 Reef fish species that were found to show red fluorescence

From: Red fluorescence in reef fish: A novel signalling mechanism?

Family Species Site Size (cm) Red fluorescent body parts Strength Guanine crystals Peak emission (nm)
Syngnathidae        
  Corythoichthys flavofasciatus 2 12 1, 2, 4, 8, 7 +++ yes 599–604
  C. schultzi 2 15 1, 2, 4, 7, 9 +++ yes 600–605
Labridae        
  Paracheilinus octotaenia 1, 2 9 4 ++ - 653–658, 695–699
  Pseudocheilinus evanidus 1, 2, 4 8 4 ++ no -
Blenniidae        
  Crossosalarias macrospilus 3 8 1, 2, 4, 10 +++ - -
  Ecsenius dentex 2 6 1, 2 + yes 584–589
Tripterygiidae        
  Enneapterygius abeli 2 2.5 1, 2, 4 ++ - 597–602
  E. destai 2 2 1, 5 ++ - -
  E. mirabilis 3 3.5 1, 5, 8, 10 +++ - -
  E. pusillus 2 2 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10 +++ yes 596–601, 684–689
  Helcogramma steinitzi 2 5 1, 2, 5 +++ - 597–602
  Ucla xenogrammus 3 5.5 1, 10 +++ - -
Gobiidae        
  Bryaninops natans 1, 2, 5 2.5 1 +++ yes 605–610
  B. ridens 2, 5 2 1 + - -
  B. yongei 2, 5 2.5 1 ++ - -
  Ctenogobiops maculosus 1, 2 7 1 +++ - -
  C. tangaroai 4 7 1 +++ yes 605–610
  Eviota distigma 2 2 1, 11 + - too weak
  E. guttata 2 2.5 1, 2, 4, 6, 9 +++ - 605–610
  E. nigriventris 4 2.5 1, 2 + - -
  E. pellucida 3, 4 2.5 1, 2, 3, 6 +++ yes 604–609
  E. prasina 2 3 1, 12 + - 596–601
  E. queenslandica 3 3 1 +   -
  E. sebreei 2 2.5 1 + yes 585–590
  E. zebrina 3, 5 3 1, 2, 4, 9 +++ yes 600–604
  Fusigobius duospilus 2 6 1 +++ - -
  F. longispinus 2 7 1 + yes 600–605
  Gnatholepis anjerensis 2 8 1 + yes -
  Istigobius decoratus 2 12 1 + yes 591–596
  Pleurosicya micheli 2, 5 3 1 ++ yes 601–606
  P. prognatha 2, 5 2 1 +++ yes 608–613
  Trimma avidori 2 3 1, 2, 9 + - 590–595
  1. Study localities: 1 = El Quseir (Sharm Fugani, Egypt, field); 2 = Dahab Marine Research Centre (South Sinai, Egypt, field and laboratory), 3 = Lizard Island Research Station (Queensland, Australia, field and laboratory), 4 = Tübingen (laboratory), 5 = Collection JH, Vienna. Fluorescent body parts are encoded as follows: 1 = Eye rings, 2 = Head (dorsal), 3 = Lateral lines, 4 = Trunk, 5 = First dorsal fin, 6 = Anal fin, 7 = Tailfin, 8 = Snout, 9 = Dots on body, 10 = Spine, 11 = Gut. Strength of fluorescence is a consensus measure among observers based on visibility in the field and/or the laboratory: Strong (+++) means strikingly bright in the field as well as in the laboratory, easy to photograph and strong spectrometric signal; weak (+) means only visible under laboratory conditions, requiring long integration times for fluorescence measurement and long exposure times for photography (optimized for each specimen). Peak emission is shown as 5 nm interval.