Patterns in species richness of the Tokelau ant fauna. On the left, total species richness is plotted against the number of individuals sampled. Each point represents a single sampling locale. Solid lines are rarefaction curves reflecting relationships between cumulative species richness and the number of individuals encountered among samples and dashed lines are 95% confidence intervals. On the right, deviations from expected species richness vales [(O-E)E-1] are plotted against total ant densities. Among island analyses are shown on top (N = 11). Among plot analyses are shown on bottom (N = 39). The rarefaction curve for the island scale is shown for both island and plot graphs for aesthetic purposes, rather than calculating many individual, plot scale, rarefaction curves.