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Table 3 Univariate ANOVA results for MANOVA tests with P < 0.10

From: Diet segregation in American bison (Bison bison) of Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA)

Model ID x y Mean values df SS F P
Female Male
1 Sex δ13Cfeces −28.61 −28.36 1,57 0.904 17.570 <0.001*
% Nfeces 2.20 2.04 1,57 0.357 5.292 0.025*
2 Sex δ13Ccollagen −21.96 −21.82 1,38 0.171 1.536 0.223
δ15Ncollagen 3.94 4.46 1,38 2.583 4.905 0.033*
3.1 Sex, CR δ13Cfeces −28.76 −28.38 1,27 1.056 18.670 <0.001*
%Nfeces 2.46 2.14 1,27 0.713 20.410 <0.001*
4.2 Sex, NR δ13Ccollagen −21.88 −21.40 1,13 0.691 11.550 0.005*
δ15Ncollagen 3.66 3.82 1,13 0.076 0.228 0.641
  1. Significant difference in δ13C values between males and females indicates different dietary sources during each respective time period. Higher %Nfeces indicates higher quality diets during the mating season, whereas lower δ15Ncollagen indicates higher quality diet during the multi-year time period. Stable isotope values are reported to the nearest 0.01‰, and %Nfeces is reported to the nearest 0.01%. Columns labeled “x” and “y” denote the independent and dependent variables, respectively, for each model