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Fig. 1 | BMC Ecology

Fig. 1

From: Do avian blood parasites influence hypoxia physiology in a high elevation environment?

Fig. 1

a Phylogenetic relationships among bird species used in the analysis following [46]. Elevational distributions are from Dixit et al. [31] and Rasmussen and Anderton [41]. Dotted vertical lines represent sampling locations. Horizontal solid lines represent species breeding elevational distribution and dashed lines represent species winter distribution (elevation in metres) of resident (red) and elevational migrant (black) species. Coloured boxes on the left margin denote taxonomic families used in the analysis. Species codes (from top): PX (Parus xanthogenys, n = 9), PM (Parus monticolus, n = 115), PC (Parus cinereus, n = 24), GV (Garrulax variegatum, n = 29), GE (Garrulax erythrocephalus, n = 64), GA (Garrulax albogularis, n = 30), SW (Seicercus whistleri, n = 10), PR (Phylloscopus reguloides, n = 27), PXN (Phylloscopus xanthoschistos, n = 83), PMC (Phylloscopus maculippenis, n = 11), AC (Aegithalos concinnus, n = 41), TB (Turdus boulboul, n = 8), MC (Myophonus caeruleus, n = 43), FS (Ficedula superciliaris, n = 6), FST (Ficedula strophiata = n=14), PF (Phoenicurus frontalis, n = 15), TR (Tarsiger rufilatus, n = 24), PD (Passer domesticus, n = 20). Bird illustrations were reproduced from Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive [78]. b Total parasite intensity decrease with increase in elevation (m). Parasite intensity increases with mid-elevation in non-breeding season. Intensity: 1 = submicrocopic; 2 = low; 3 = medium; 4 = high; 5 = very high; H = Haemoproteus, L = Leucocytozoon, P = Plasmodium, H, L = Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon co-infections, P, L = Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon co-infections. c Hct is negatively correlated with total parasite intensity. d Hb is negatively correlated with parasite intensity. H, L = Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon co-infections, P, L = Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon co-infections

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